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DRHC Dubai Gynecology Clinic

Cervical CarcinomaDubai Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinic

Aetiology:

In 99.7% of cases, HPV causes a pre-cancerous changes in the cervical cells that develop into cancer.

Oncogenic subtypes of HPV are: 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, and 58.

Non-oncogenic subtypes are: 6 and 11, which causes low-grade cervical lesions and genital warts.

 Risk Factors:

  • Smoking
  • HIV infection
  • COCP

 
Pathophysiology:

  • Squamous cell carcinoma 70-80%.
  • Adenocarcinoma 20%.
  • Rare forms including malignant melanomas, sarcomas, lymphomas, and small cell carcinoma.

 Symptoms:

  • Post-coital bleeding.
  • Intermenstrual bleeding.
  • Postmenopausal bleeding.
  • Persistent, offensive, blood strained discharge.
  • Pain (in late disease).
  • Thrombosis in the pelvic veins causes a swelling leg.

 Investigations:

  • Colposcopy to examine the cervix.
  • Cervical biopsy.
  • MRI pelvic to assess the tumour volume, size, local invasion, and pelvic lymph node spread.
  • CT of abdomen and chest to look for metastases.

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Staging:

Stage I: The carcinoma is strictly confined to the cervix.

               IA: Microscopic invasive carcinoma

                              IA1: Stromal invasion ≤ 3 mm diameter ≤ 7 mm.

                              IA2: Stromal invasion ˃ 3 mm diameter ˃ 7 mm.

               IB: Lesion ˃ 7 mm wide or ˃ 5 mm deep or visible.

                              IB1: Clinical lesion ≤ 4 cm.

                              IB2: Clinical lesion ˃ 4 cm.

Stage II: Carcinoma extends beyond the cervix but not to pelvic wall or lower third of vagina.

               IIA: Involvement of up to two-third of vagina.

               IIB: Involvement of the para-metrium.

Stage III: Carcinoma extends to the pelvic wall and lower third of vagina.

               IIIA: Involvement of lower one-third of vagina.

               IIIB: Extended onto pelvic wall or/and hydro-nephrosis or non-functioning kidney.

Stage IV: Carcinoma extends beyond the true pelvis, or involvement of bladder or rectum.

               IVA: Spread to adjacent pelvic organs.

               IVB: Distant metastasis.

For more information, please do not hesitate to call us.


 

Dubai Obstetrics and Gynecology clinic at DRHC now provides top male and female Gynecologist in Dubai to enhance the service on Cosmetic Gynecology,Surgical GynecologyContraception, Menopause,Labiaplasty and so on.

Dr. Lama Omer

Dr. Lama Omer Sibai

Obstetrics and Gynecology Surgeon

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