Dysphagia - Dubai ENT Clinic

  • The definition of dysphagia is difficulty to move food or liquid from your mouth to your stomach.  It is most common in older adults, babies, and people who have problems of the brain or nervous system.

Dysphagia is classified into:

  • Oropharyngeal Dysphagia
  • Esophageal Dysphagia


The causes of Dysphagia:

  • Neuromuscular Disorders:
    • Certain disorders —  Post-polio syndrome, multiple sclerosis, muscular dystrophy, or Parkinson's disease
    • Neurological damage - Sudden neurological damage, such as from a stroke or brain or spinal cord injury, can affect your ability to swallow.
    • Achalasia
    • Diffuse spasm
  • Congenital diseases
  • Oesophageal stricture
  • Oesophageal tumors - Progressive difficulty of swallowing tends to suspect oesophageal tumors
  • Foreign bodies -  Sudden swallowing difficulty might due to foreign body ingestion, bones coines
  • Oesophageal ring
  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) - Damage to esophageal tissues from stomach acid backing up into your esophagus can lead to spasm or scarring and narrowing of your lower esophagus.
  • Esophagitis
  • An immune system problem - Polymyositis or dermatomyositis Scleroderma may cause inflammation, Development of scar-like tissue, causing stiffening and hardening of tissues, can weaken your lower esophageal sphincter, allowing acid to back up into your esophagus and cause frequent heartburn.
  • Radiation therapy - Lead to inflammation and scarring of the esophagus
  • Diverticula - These are small sacs in the walls of the esophagus or the throat
  • Congenital diseases

How to diagnose ?

  • Direct examination by nasopharyngoscop will rule out all lesions in mouth and throat
  • Orsophagoscopy
  • X-ray with a contrast material (barium X-ray).
  • Dynamic swallowing study
  • Fiber-optic endoscopic swallowing evaluation (FEES)
  • Esophageal muscle test (manometry)
  • Imaging scans 


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