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 For intrarenal stones, the symptomatic patients suffer from severe recurrent renal colic. Medical treatment to get rid of the stones fail with stones sized from 0. 6 cm  volume and above.

The treatment options out of the open surgical trend of removal are 3 options:

  1. Using extracorporeal shock wave outside the body with 90% success in small to moderate stones.
  2. Percutaneous route endoscopic ablation using under vision different sizes and types of endoscopes via small flank opening. This kind is associated with lot of complications.
  3. Laser disintegration through under vision fine flexible ureterorenoscopy. This is the preferred type as the complication is less and the stone removal rate is high.

New progress in the endoscopes by using video chip at the tip results in better resolution and less sizes.

The latest innovation is by using the rebotics (Riboflex) . It adds more ease and fast disintegration.  This technology is the up to date one best experience and lot of money is the limitation for its wide use.

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